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Abstract



Smart Integration of Photovoltaics, Vehicle Charging, and Battery Storage in a Household


The installed power of photovoltaics (PV) increases rapidly, as well as electric vehicles (EV). Most of the EV charging will occur at home, and there is a possibility to shift the charging in time to minimize the electricity cost. The reasons are for example to maximize the self-consumption of the produced electricity, and to charge the EV when the electricity price is at the lowest rate, since the electricity price is set by hourly rates one day in advance in northern Europe. To maximize the self-consumption of the generated PV power, battery storage systems (BSS) are common in Germany, but not as common in Sweden. Simulations and optimizations show that installation of PV systems significantly cuts the electricity costs for the households. Optimizing the time when to charge the EV decreases the yearly electricity cost by about 5\% in Sweden, which is a good contribution since the investment of such system is small. Installing a BSS saves only about 3\%, and is therefore not profitable due to the high investment. In Germany the difference between selling and buying electricity is significant, and therefore the electricity bill savings are about 1500SEK/year (6\%) by installing a 5kWh BSS. Considering the investment cost, this is not yet profitable, but only a relatively small change in the market conditions will make the BSS profitable in Germany.

Christofer Sundström, Maximilian Kronawitter and Lorenz Viernstein

2018

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